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Petrography and geochemistry of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, South China: Implications for the origin of a Neoproterozoic BIF system
Xu, DR; Wang, ZL; Chen, HY; Hollings, P; Jansen, NH; Zhang, ZC; Wu, CJ; xuderu@gig.ac.cn
2014
Source PublicationORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS
ISSN0169-1368
Volume57Pages:322-350
AbstractThe Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district is situated in the western Hainan Province of south China. This district consists of the upper Fe-rich layers and the lower Co-Cu ores, which are mainly hosted within the Neoproterozoic Shilu Group, a dominantly submarine siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentary succession that generally has been metamorphosed to greenschist facies. Three facies of metamorphosed BIFs, the oxide, the silicate-oxide and the sulfide-carbonate-silicate, have been identified within the Shilu Group. The oxide banded iron formation (BIF) fades (quartz itabirites or Fe-rich ores) consists of alternating hematite-rich and quartz-rich microbands. The silicate-oxide BIF facies (amphibolitic itabirites or Fe-poor ores) comprises alternating millimeter to tens of meter scale, magnetite-hematite-rich bands with calc-silicate-rich macro- to microbands. The sulfide-carbonate-silicate BIF facies (Co-Cu ores) contain alternating cobaltiferous pyrite, cobaltiferous pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite macrobands to microbands mainly with dolomite-calcite, but also with minor sericite-quartz bands. Blasto-oolitic, pelletoidal, colloidal, psammitic, and ayptoaystalline to microaystalline textures, and blasto-bedding structures, which likely represent primary sedimentation, are often observed in the Shilu BIF facies. The Shilu BIFs and interbedded host rocks are generally characterized by relatively low but variable Sigma REE concentrations, LREE depletion and/or MREE enrichment relative to HREE, and no Ce, Gd and Eu anomalies to strongly positive Ce, Gd and Eu anomalies in the upward-convex PAAS-normalized REY patterns, except for both the banded or impure dolostones with nil Ce anomaly to negative Ce anomalies and negative La anomalies, and the minor sulfide-carbonate-silicate BIF facies with moderately negative Eu anomalies. They also contain relatively low but variable HFSE abundances as Zr, Nb, Hf, Th and Ti, and relatively high but variable abundances of Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, As, Mn and Ba. The consistently negative epsilon(Nd)(t) values range from -4.8 to -8.5, with a T-DM age of ca. 2.0 Ga. In line with the covariations between Al2O3 and TiO2, Fe2O3 + FeO and SiO2, Mn and Fe, Zr and Y/Ho and REE, and Sc and LREE, the geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic features suggest that the precursors to the Shilu BIFs formed from a source dominated by seafloor-derived, high- to low temperature, acidic and reducing hydrothermal fluids but with variable input of detrital components in a seawater environment. Moreover, the involved detrital materials were sourced dominantly from an unknown, Paleoproterozoic or older crust, with lesser involvement from the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Baoban Group underlying the Shilu Group. The Shilu BIFs of various fades are interpreted to have formed in a shallow marine, restricted or sheltered basin near the rifted continental margin most likely associated with the break-up of Rodinia as the result of mantle superplume activity in South China. The seafloor-derived, periodically upwelling metalliferous hydrothermal plume/vent fluids under anoxic but sulfidic to anoxic but Fe2+-rich conditions were removed from the plume/ vent and accumulated in the basin, and then variably mixed with terrigenous detrital components, which finally led to rhythmic deposition of the Shilu BIFs. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Department[Xu, D. R. ; Chen, H. Y. ; Wu, C. J.] Chinese Acad Sci, Guangzhou Inst Geochem, Key Lab Mineral & Metallogeny, Guangzhou 510301, Guangdong, Peoples R China ; [Wang, Z. L.] Cent S Univ, Sch Geosci & Infophys, Key Lab Metallogen Predict Nonferrous Met, Minist Educ, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China ; [Hollings, Pete] Lakehead Univ, Dept Geol, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada ; [Jansen, Nicholas H.] Univ Tasmania, ARC Ctr Excellence Ore Deposit Res CODES, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia ; [Zhang, Z. C.] China Univ Geosci, State Key Lab Geol Proc & Mineral Resources, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China
KeywordMetamorphosed Neoproterozoic Bifs Source Areas Restricted Or Sheltered Marine Basin Near The Rifted Continental Margin Shilu Fe-co-cu Ore District Hainan Province South China
Subject AreaGeology ; Mineralogy ; Mining & Mineral Processing
Funding OrganizationState Key Fundamental Program [2012CB416806]; GIGCAS 135 Project [Y234141A07] ; State Key Fundamental Program [2012CB416806]; GIGCAS 135 Project [Y234141A07] ; State Key Fundamental Program [2012CB416806]; GIGCAS 135 Project [Y234141A07] ; State Key Fundamental Program [2012CB416806]; GIGCAS 135 Project [Y234141A07]
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Indexed Bysci
Funding Project海洋地质
Funding OrganizationState Key Fundamental Program [2012CB416806]; GIGCAS 135 Project [Y234141A07] ; State Key Fundamental Program [2012CB416806]; GIGCAS 135 Project [Y234141A07] ; State Key Fundamental Program [2012CB416806]; GIGCAS 135 Project [Y234141A07] ; State Key Fundamental Program [2012CB416806]; GIGCAS 135 Project [Y234141A07]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.scsio.ac.cn/handle/344004/10646
Collection中科院边缘海地质重点实验室
Corresponding Authorxuderu@gig.ac.cn
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Xu, DR,Wang, ZL,Chen, HY,et al. Petrography and geochemistry of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, South China: Implications for the origin of a Neoproterozoic BIF system[J]. ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS,2014,57:322-350.
APA Xu, DR.,Wang, ZL.,Chen, HY.,Hollings, P.,Jansen, NH.,...&xuderu@gig.ac.cn.(2014).Petrography and geochemistry of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, South China: Implications for the origin of a Neoproterozoic BIF system.ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS,57,322-350.
MLA Xu, DR,et al."Petrography and geochemistry of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, South China: Implications for the origin of a Neoproterozoic BIF system".ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS 57(2014):322-350.
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