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Characterization of double diffusive convection steps and heat budget in the deep Arctic Ocean
[Zhou, Sheng-Qi; Lu, Yuan-Zheng] Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, South China Sea Inst Oceanol, Guangzhou 510301, Guangdong, Peoples R China; [Lu, Yuan-Zheng] Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China; sqzhou@scsio.ac.cn
2013
Source PublicationJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS
ISSN2169-9275
Volume118Issue:12Pages:6672-6686
AbstractIn this paper, we explore the hydrographic structure and heat budget in the deep Canada Basin by using data measured with McLane-Moored-Profilers (MMP), bottom pressure recorders (BPR), and conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers. Upward from the bottom, a homogeneous bottom layer and its overlaying double diffusive convection (DDC) steps are well identified at Mooring A ( 75 degrees N,150 degrees W). We find that the deep water is in weak diapycnal mixing because the effective diffusivity of the bottom layer is approximate to 1.8x10-5m2s-1, while that of the other steps is approximate to 10-6m2s-1. The vertical heat flux through the DDC steps is evaluated by using different methods. We find that the heat flux ( 0.1-11mWm-2) is much smaller than geothermal heating ( approximate to 50mWm-2). This suggests that the stack of DDC steps acts as a thermal barrier in the deep basin. Moreover, the temporal distributions of temperature and salinity differences across the interface are exponential, whereas those of heat flux and effective diffusivity are found to be approximately lognormal. Both are the result of strong intermittency. Between 2003 and 2011, temperature fluctuations close to the sea floor were distributed asymmetrically and skewed toward positive values, which provide a direct observation that geothermal heating was transferred into the ocean. Both BPR and CTD data suggest that geothermal heating and not the warming of the upper ocean is the dominant mechanism responsible for the warming of deep water. As the DDC steps prevent vertical heat transfer, geothermal heating is unlikely to have a significant effect on the middle and upper Arctic Ocean.
DepartmentLTO
KeywordDouble Diffusive Convection Geothermal Heating Diapycnal Mixing Turbulent Behavior
Subject AreaOceanography
Funding OrganizationWe gratefully acknowledge Mary-Louise Timmermans for her support and generosity in sharing valuable communications of data set and BPR measurements. We thank Martin Schmid for sending the data of Lake Kivu for comparison. We are grateful to Rui Xin Huang and Raymond W. Schmitt for the helpful discussions on geothermal heating and double diffusive convection. We specially thank Zuojun Yu for the valuable comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by China NSF grants (41176027 and 11072253), Guangdong NSF grant (10251030101000000), and the 973 Program grant (2010CB950302). The data were collected and made available by the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre) in collaboration with researchers from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. ; We gratefully acknowledge Mary-Louise Timmermans for her support and generosity in sharing valuable communications of data set and BPR measurements. We thank Martin Schmid for sending the data of Lake Kivu for comparison. We are grateful to Rui Xin Huang and Raymond W. Schmitt for the helpful discussions on geothermal heating and double diffusive convection. We specially thank Zuojun Yu for the valuable comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by China NSF grants (41176027 and 11072253), Guangdong NSF grant (10251030101000000), and the 973 Program grant (2010CB950302). The data were collected and made available by the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre) in collaboration with researchers from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. ; We gratefully acknowledge Mary-Louise Timmermans for her support and generosity in sharing valuable communications of data set and BPR measurements. We thank Martin Schmid for sending the data of Lake Kivu for comparison. We are grateful to Rui Xin Huang and Raymond W. Schmitt for the helpful discussions on geothermal heating and double diffusive convection. We specially thank Zuojun Yu for the valuable comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by China NSF grants (41176027 and 11072253), Guangdong NSF grant (10251030101000000), and the 973 Program grant (2010CB950302). The data were collected and made available by the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre) in collaboration with researchers from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. ; We gratefully acknowledge Mary-Louise Timmermans for her support and generosity in sharing valuable communications of data set and BPR measurements. We thank Martin Schmid for sending the data of Lake Kivu for comparison. We are grateful to Rui Xin Huang and Raymond W. Schmitt for the helpful discussions on geothermal heating and double diffusive convection. We specially thank Zuojun Yu for the valuable comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by China NSF grants (41176027 and 11072253), Guangdong NSF grant (10251030101000000), and the 973 Program grant (2010CB950302). The data were collected and made available by the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre) in collaboration with researchers from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences.
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Language英语
Funding OrganizationWe gratefully acknowledge Mary-Louise Timmermans for her support and generosity in sharing valuable communications of data set and BPR measurements. We thank Martin Schmid for sending the data of Lake Kivu for comparison. We are grateful to Rui Xin Huang and Raymond W. Schmitt for the helpful discussions on geothermal heating and double diffusive convection. We specially thank Zuojun Yu for the valuable comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by China NSF grants (41176027 and 11072253), Guangdong NSF grant (10251030101000000), and the 973 Program grant (2010CB950302). The data were collected and made available by the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre) in collaboration with researchers from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. ; We gratefully acknowledge Mary-Louise Timmermans for her support and generosity in sharing valuable communications of data set and BPR measurements. We thank Martin Schmid for sending the data of Lake Kivu for comparison. We are grateful to Rui Xin Huang and Raymond W. Schmitt for the helpful discussions on geothermal heating and double diffusive convection. We specially thank Zuojun Yu for the valuable comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by China NSF grants (41176027 and 11072253), Guangdong NSF grant (10251030101000000), and the 973 Program grant (2010CB950302). The data were collected and made available by the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre) in collaboration with researchers from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. ; We gratefully acknowledge Mary-Louise Timmermans for her support and generosity in sharing valuable communications of data set and BPR measurements. We thank Martin Schmid for sending the data of Lake Kivu for comparison. We are grateful to Rui Xin Huang and Raymond W. Schmitt for the helpful discussions on geothermal heating and double diffusive convection. We specially thank Zuojun Yu for the valuable comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by China NSF grants (41176027 and 11072253), Guangdong NSF grant (10251030101000000), and the 973 Program grant (2010CB950302). The data were collected and made available by the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre) in collaboration with researchers from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. ; We gratefully acknowledge Mary-Louise Timmermans for her support and generosity in sharing valuable communications of data set and BPR measurements. We thank Martin Schmid for sending the data of Lake Kivu for comparison. We are grateful to Rui Xin Huang and Raymond W. Schmitt for the helpful discussions on geothermal heating and double diffusive convection. We specially thank Zuojun Yu for the valuable comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by China NSF grants (41176027 and 11072253), Guangdong NSF grant (10251030101000000), and the 973 Program grant (2010CB950302). The data were collected and made available by the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre) in collaboration with researchers from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences.
WOS IDWOS:000329926200024
Citation statistics
Cited Times:7[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.scsio.ac.cn/handle/344004/10861
Collection热带海洋环境国家重点实验室(LTO)
Corresponding Authorsqzhou@scsio.ac.cn
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
[Zhou, Sheng-Qi,Lu, Yuan-Zheng] Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, South China Sea Inst Oceanol, Guangzhou 510301, Guangdong, Peoples R China,[Lu, Yuan-Zheng] Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China,et al. Characterization of double diffusive convection steps and heat budget in the deep Arctic Ocean[J]. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS,2013,118(12):6672-6686.
APA [Zhou, Sheng-Qi,Lu, Yuan-Zheng] Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, South China Sea Inst Oceanol, Guangzhou 510301, Guangdong, Peoples R China,[Lu, Yuan-Zheng] Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China,&sqzhou@scsio.ac.cn.(2013).Characterization of double diffusive convection steps and heat budget in the deep Arctic Ocean.JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS,118(12),6672-6686.
MLA [Zhou, Sheng-Qi,et al."Characterization of double diffusive convection steps and heat budget in the deep Arctic Ocean".JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 118.12(2013):6672-6686.
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