Seasonal variations of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the largest tropical marginal sea (South China Sea) based on multiple-year underway measurements
[Zhai, W. -D.; Dai, M. -H.; Chen, B. -S.; Guo, X. -H.; Li, Q.; Shang, S. -L.; Zhang, C. -Y.] Xiamen Univ, State Key Lab Marine Environm Sci, Xiamen 361012, Peoples R China; [Zhai, W. -D.] Natl Marine Environm Monitoring Ctr, Dalian 116023, Peoples R China; [Chen, B. -S.; Cai, W. -J.] Univ Georgia, Dept Marine Sci, Athens, GA 30602 USA; [Cai, W. -J.] Univ Delaware, Sch Marine Sci & Policy, Newark, DE 19716 USA; [Wang, D. -X.] Chinese Acad Sci, South China Sea Inst Oceanol, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, Guangzhou 510301, Guangdong, Peoples R China; mdai@xmu.edu.cn
2013
发表期刊BIOGEOSCIENCES
ISSN1726-4170
卷号10期号:11页码:7775-7791
摘要Based upon 14 field surveys conducted between 2003 and 2008, we showed that the seasonal pattern of sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) and sea-air CO2 fluxes differed among four different physical-biogeochemical domains in the South China Sea (SCS) proper. The four domains were located between 7 and 23 degrees N and 110 and 12 degrees E, covering a surface area of 1344 x 10(3) km(2) and accounting for similar to 54% of the SCS proper. In the area off the Pearl River estuary, relatively low pCO(2) values of 320 to 390 mu atm were observed in all four seasons and both the biological productivity and CO2 uptake were enhanced in summer in the Pearl River plume waters. In the northern SCS slope/basin area, a typical seasonal cycle of relatively high pCO(2) in the warm seasons and relatively low pCO(2) in the cold seasons was revealed. In the central/southern SCS area, moderately high sea surface pCO(2) values of 360 to 425 mu atm were observed throughout the year. In the area west of the Luzon Strait, a major exchange pathway between the SCS and the Pacific Ocean, pCO(2) was particularly dynamic in winter, when northeast monsoon induced upwelling events and strong outgassing of CO2. These episodic events might have dominated the annual sea-air CO2 flux in this particular area. The estimate of annual sea-air CO2 fluxes showed that most areas of the SCS proper served as weak to moderate sources of the atmospheric CO2, with sea-air CO2 flux values of 0.46 +/- 0.43 mol m(-2) yr(-1) in the northern SCS slope/basin, 1.37 +/- 0.55 mol m(-2) yr(-1) in the central/southern SCS, and 1.21 +/- 1.48 mol m(-2) yr(-1) in the area west of the Luzon Strait. However, the annual sea-air CO2 exchange was nearly in equilibrium (-0.44 +/- 0.65 mol m(-2) yr(-1)) in the area off the Pearl River estuary. Overall the four domains contributed (18 +/- 10) x 10(12) g Cyr(-1) to the atmospheric CO2.
部门归属LTO
学科领域Ecology ; Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
资助者We thank Yi Wang, Gui Chen, Zhaozhang Chen, Ke Liu, Benwang Wang, and Zhimian Cao for assistance in the data collection during several cruises, Zhongming Lu for sharing the February 2006 pCO2 data set around the Xisha Islands, and Professor John Hodgkiss for his assistance with English. Jiwei Tian, Pinghe Cai and the crews of R/V Shiyan 3, R/V Dongfanghong 2, R/V Yanping 2, R/V Kexue 3, and R/V Haijian 83 provided much help during the sampling cruises. Valuable comments from Christophe Rabouille, Wiley Evans, and an anonymous reviewer have improved the quality of the manuscript. The research was jointly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41130857, 41121091, 41206061, 41076044, and 90711005), and the State Oceanic Administration of China (SOA) (contract DOMEP-MEA-01-10). Sampling surveys were partially supported by the NSFC (90211020, 40490264, and 40521003) using R/V Yanping 2 and R/V Dongfanghong 2; the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO, CAS, China) via the Integrated Nansha Scientific Investigation Cruise 2004, and via the South China Sea Open Cruise 2004 using R/V Shiyan 3; the National High-Tech Research and Development Program ("863" Program) of China via the project of Quality Control/in situ Standardization Experiment 2007 using R/V Dongfanghong 2; the Institute of Oceanology, CAS, China, via the China Sea Open Cruise 2006 using R/V Kexue 3; and the SOA via the South China Sea Repeat Section Investigation in winter 2006 using R/V Haijian 83. ; We thank Yi Wang, Gui Chen, Zhaozhang Chen, Ke Liu, Benwang Wang, and Zhimian Cao for assistance in the data collection during several cruises, Zhongming Lu for sharing the February 2006 pCO2 data set around the Xisha Islands, and Professor John Hodgkiss for his assistance with English. Jiwei Tian, Pinghe Cai and the crews of R/V Shiyan 3, R/V Dongfanghong 2, R/V Yanping 2, R/V Kexue 3, and R/V Haijian 83 provided much help during the sampling cruises. Valuable comments from Christophe Rabouille, Wiley Evans, and an anonymous reviewer have improved the quality of the manuscript. The research was jointly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41130857, 41121091, 41206061, 41076044, and 90711005), and the State Oceanic Administration of China (SOA) (contract DOMEP-MEA-01-10). Sampling surveys were partially supported by the NSFC (90211020, 40490264, and 40521003) using R/V Yanping 2 and R/V Dongfanghong 2; the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO, CAS, China) via the Integrated Nansha Scientific Investigation Cruise 2004, and via the South China Sea Open Cruise 2004 using R/V Shiyan 3; the National High-Tech Research and Development Program ("863" Program) of China via the project of Quality Control/in situ Standardization Experiment 2007 using R/V Dongfanghong 2; the Institute of Oceanology, CAS, China, via the China Sea Open Cruise 2006 using R/V Kexue 3; and the SOA via the South China Sea Repeat Section Investigation in winter 2006 using R/V Haijian 83. ; We thank Yi Wang, Gui Chen, Zhaozhang Chen, Ke Liu, Benwang Wang, and Zhimian Cao for assistance in the data collection during several cruises, Zhongming Lu for sharing the February 2006 pCO2 data set around the Xisha Islands, and Professor John Hodgkiss for his assistance with English. Jiwei Tian, Pinghe Cai and the crews of R/V Shiyan 3, R/V Dongfanghong 2, R/V Yanping 2, R/V Kexue 3, and R/V Haijian 83 provided much help during the sampling cruises. Valuable comments from Christophe Rabouille, Wiley Evans, and an anonymous reviewer have improved the quality of the manuscript. The research was jointly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41130857, 41121091, 41206061, 41076044, and 90711005), and the State Oceanic Administration of China (SOA) (contract DOMEP-MEA-01-10). Sampling surveys were partially supported by the NSFC (90211020, 40490264, and 40521003) using R/V Yanping 2 and R/V Dongfanghong 2; the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO, CAS, China) via the Integrated Nansha Scientific Investigation Cruise 2004, and via the South China Sea Open Cruise 2004 using R/V Shiyan 3; the National High-Tech Research and Development Program ("863" Program) of China via the project of Quality Control/in situ Standardization Experiment 2007 using R/V Dongfanghong 2; the Institute of Oceanology, CAS, China, via the China Sea Open Cruise 2006 using R/V Kexue 3; and the SOA via the South China Sea Repeat Section Investigation in winter 2006 using R/V Haijian 83. ; We thank Yi Wang, Gui Chen, Zhaozhang Chen, Ke Liu, Benwang Wang, and Zhimian Cao for assistance in the data collection during several cruises, Zhongming Lu for sharing the February 2006 pCO2 data set around the Xisha Islands, and Professor John Hodgkiss for his assistance with English. Jiwei Tian, Pinghe Cai and the crews of R/V Shiyan 3, R/V Dongfanghong 2, R/V Yanping 2, R/V Kexue 3, and R/V Haijian 83 provided much help during the sampling cruises. Valuable comments from Christophe Rabouille, Wiley Evans, and an anonymous reviewer have improved the quality of the manuscript. The research was jointly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41130857, 41121091, 41206061, 41076044, and 90711005), and the State Oceanic Administration of China (SOA) (contract DOMEP-MEA-01-10). Sampling surveys were partially supported by the NSFC (90211020, 40490264, and 40521003) using R/V Yanping 2 and R/V Dongfanghong 2; the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO, CAS, China) via the Integrated Nansha Scientific Investigation Cruise 2004, and via the South China Sea Open Cruise 2004 using R/V Shiyan 3; the National High-Tech Research and Development Program ("863" Program) of China via the project of Quality Control/in situ Standardization Experiment 2007 using R/V Dongfanghong 2; the Institute of Oceanology, CAS, China, via the China Sea Open Cruise 2006 using R/V Kexue 3; and the SOA via the South China Sea Repeat Section Investigation in winter 2006 using R/V Haijian 83.
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语种英语
资助者We thank Yi Wang, Gui Chen, Zhaozhang Chen, Ke Liu, Benwang Wang, and Zhimian Cao for assistance in the data collection during several cruises, Zhongming Lu for sharing the February 2006 pCO2 data set around the Xisha Islands, and Professor John Hodgkiss for his assistance with English. Jiwei Tian, Pinghe Cai and the crews of R/V Shiyan 3, R/V Dongfanghong 2, R/V Yanping 2, R/V Kexue 3, and R/V Haijian 83 provided much help during the sampling cruises. Valuable comments from Christophe Rabouille, Wiley Evans, and an anonymous reviewer have improved the quality of the manuscript. The research was jointly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41130857, 41121091, 41206061, 41076044, and 90711005), and the State Oceanic Administration of China (SOA) (contract DOMEP-MEA-01-10). Sampling surveys were partially supported by the NSFC (90211020, 40490264, and 40521003) using R/V Yanping 2 and R/V Dongfanghong 2; the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO, CAS, China) via the Integrated Nansha Scientific Investigation Cruise 2004, and via the South China Sea Open Cruise 2004 using R/V Shiyan 3; the National High-Tech Research and Development Program ("863" Program) of China via the project of Quality Control/in situ Standardization Experiment 2007 using R/V Dongfanghong 2; the Institute of Oceanology, CAS, China, via the China Sea Open Cruise 2006 using R/V Kexue 3; and the SOA via the South China Sea Repeat Section Investigation in winter 2006 using R/V Haijian 83. ; We thank Yi Wang, Gui Chen, Zhaozhang Chen, Ke Liu, Benwang Wang, and Zhimian Cao for assistance in the data collection during several cruises, Zhongming Lu for sharing the February 2006 pCO2 data set around the Xisha Islands, and Professor John Hodgkiss for his assistance with English. Jiwei Tian, Pinghe Cai and the crews of R/V Shiyan 3, R/V Dongfanghong 2, R/V Yanping 2, R/V Kexue 3, and R/V Haijian 83 provided much help during the sampling cruises. Valuable comments from Christophe Rabouille, Wiley Evans, and an anonymous reviewer have improved the quality of the manuscript. The research was jointly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41130857, 41121091, 41206061, 41076044, and 90711005), and the State Oceanic Administration of China (SOA) (contract DOMEP-MEA-01-10). Sampling surveys were partially supported by the NSFC (90211020, 40490264, and 40521003) using R/V Yanping 2 and R/V Dongfanghong 2; the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO, CAS, China) via the Integrated Nansha Scientific Investigation Cruise 2004, and via the South China Sea Open Cruise 2004 using R/V Shiyan 3; the National High-Tech Research and Development Program ("863" Program) of China via the project of Quality Control/in situ Standardization Experiment 2007 using R/V Dongfanghong 2; the Institute of Oceanology, CAS, China, via the China Sea Open Cruise 2006 using R/V Kexue 3; and the SOA via the South China Sea Repeat Section Investigation in winter 2006 using R/V Haijian 83. ; We thank Yi Wang, Gui Chen, Zhaozhang Chen, Ke Liu, Benwang Wang, and Zhimian Cao for assistance in the data collection during several cruises, Zhongming Lu for sharing the February 2006 pCO2 data set around the Xisha Islands, and Professor John Hodgkiss for his assistance with English. Jiwei Tian, Pinghe Cai and the crews of R/V Shiyan 3, R/V Dongfanghong 2, R/V Yanping 2, R/V Kexue 3, and R/V Haijian 83 provided much help during the sampling cruises. Valuable comments from Christophe Rabouille, Wiley Evans, and an anonymous reviewer have improved the quality of the manuscript. The research was jointly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41130857, 41121091, 41206061, 41076044, and 90711005), and the State Oceanic Administration of China (SOA) (contract DOMEP-MEA-01-10). Sampling surveys were partially supported by the NSFC (90211020, 40490264, and 40521003) using R/V Yanping 2 and R/V Dongfanghong 2; the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO, CAS, China) via the Integrated Nansha Scientific Investigation Cruise 2004, and via the South China Sea Open Cruise 2004 using R/V Shiyan 3; the National High-Tech Research and Development Program ("863" Program) of China via the project of Quality Control/in situ Standardization Experiment 2007 using R/V Dongfanghong 2; the Institute of Oceanology, CAS, China, via the China Sea Open Cruise 2006 using R/V Kexue 3; and the SOA via the South China Sea Repeat Section Investigation in winter 2006 using R/V Haijian 83. ; We thank Yi Wang, Gui Chen, Zhaozhang Chen, Ke Liu, Benwang Wang, and Zhimian Cao for assistance in the data collection during several cruises, Zhongming Lu for sharing the February 2006 pCO2 data set around the Xisha Islands, and Professor John Hodgkiss for his assistance with English. Jiwei Tian, Pinghe Cai and the crews of R/V Shiyan 3, R/V Dongfanghong 2, R/V Yanping 2, R/V Kexue 3, and R/V Haijian 83 provided much help during the sampling cruises. Valuable comments from Christophe Rabouille, Wiley Evans, and an anonymous reviewer have improved the quality of the manuscript. The research was jointly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41130857, 41121091, 41206061, 41076044, and 90711005), and the State Oceanic Administration of China (SOA) (contract DOMEP-MEA-01-10). Sampling surveys were partially supported by the NSFC (90211020, 40490264, and 40521003) using R/V Yanping 2 and R/V Dongfanghong 2; the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO, CAS, China) via the Integrated Nansha Scientific Investigation Cruise 2004, and via the South China Sea Open Cruise 2004 using R/V Shiyan 3; the National High-Tech Research and Development Program ("863" Program) of China via the project of Quality Control/in situ Standardization Experiment 2007 using R/V Dongfanghong 2; the Institute of Oceanology, CAS, China, via the China Sea Open Cruise 2006 using R/V Kexue 3; and the SOA via the South China Sea Repeat Section Investigation in winter 2006 using R/V Haijian 83.
WOS记录号WOS:000327814700068
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文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.scsio.ac.cn/handle/344004/10938
专题热带海洋环境国家重点实验室(LTO)
通讯作者mdai@xmu.edu.cn
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[Zhai, W. -D.,Dai, M. -H.,Chen, B. -S.,et al. Seasonal variations of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the largest tropical marginal sea (South China Sea) based on multiple-year underway measurements[J]. BIOGEOSCIENCES,2013,10(11):7775-7791.
APA [Zhai, W. -D..,Dai, M. -H..,Chen, B. -S..,Guo, X. -H..,Li, Q..,...&mdai@xmu.edu.cn.(2013).Seasonal variations of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the largest tropical marginal sea (South China Sea) based on multiple-year underway measurements.BIOGEOSCIENCES,10(11),7775-7791.
MLA [Zhai, W. -D.,et al."Seasonal variations of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the largest tropical marginal sea (South China Sea) based on multiple-year underway measurements".BIOGEOSCIENCES 10.11(2013):7775-7791.
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