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The Indonesian Throughflow and the Circulation in the Banda Sea: A Modeling Study
Liang, Linlin1; Xue, Huijie2; Shu, Yeqiang
AbstractTo investigate the relationship between the Indonesian ThroughFlow (ITF) and the Banda Sea circulation, we set up a high-resolution ocean circulation model for the western Pacific and northern Indian Oceans. This well-validated model demonstrates complex distributions of the along-channel velocity in different straits, with vertically sheared flows in the Makassar and Maluku straits but horizontally sheared flows in the Halmahera, Timor, and Ombai straits. The model also reveals a three-layer circulation pattern in the Banda Sea: clockwise, counterclockwise, and clockwise in the upper (<500 m), middle (500-2,250 m), and lower (>2,250 m) water column, respectively. The Lagrangian tracking code TRACMASS is used to diagnose the sources and sinks of Banda Sea waters. The backward/forward tracking experiment pinpoints the inflows/outflows in the straits surrounding the Indonesian Archipelago (IA), which directly affect the Banda Sea. These TRACMASS results imply active vertical exchanges in the Banda Sea, which result in fast flushing with a typical time scale of 8years. Based on the profiles of net transport into and out of the Banda Sea estimated from the tracking experiments, the three-layer circulations of the Banda Sea are dynamically explained in terms of the potential vorticity (PV) integral constraint: the PV flux across the boundary and the wind stress curl act in concert with approximately equal order of magnitude for the clockwise circulation in the upper layer, while the positive (negative) PV flux to the middle (bottom) layer corresponds to the counterclockwise (clockwise) circulation. Plain Language Summary The ITF is the tropical unidirectional flow from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean that has a profound effect on the circulation, water properties, and ecosystems of both oceans. The Banda Sea is centrally located in the IA and on the way of the ITF, but the relationship between the ITF and the Banda Sea circulation has not been studied. High-resolution ocean simulation provides an effective approach to address this scientific question as direct observations from the region are rare in space and time. In this work, we apply the Regional Ocean Modeling System to the western Pacific and northern Indian Oceans to depict the three-dimensional circulation inside the IA and its relationship to the ITF. For the first time, the model results reveal an interesting three-layer clockwise-counterclockwise-clockwise in the Banda Sea. Moreover, we apply the Lagrangian trajectory code TRACMASS to diagnose the sources and sinks of Banda Sea waters. TRACMASS results identify the position and relative contribution of the inflow and outflow to the Banda Sea via a labyrinth of passages around the IA, which are particularly associated with the ITF. All these help us to better understand the ITF and the Banda Sea circulation.
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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, South China Sea Inst Oceanol, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China
2.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Grad Sch, Beijing, Peoples R China
3.Univ Maine, Sch Marine Sci, Orono, ME 04469 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Liang, Linlin,Xue, Huijie,Shu, Yeqiang. The Indonesian Throughflow and the Circulation in the Banda Sea: A Modeling Study[J]. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS,2019,124(5):3089, 3106.
APA Liang, Linlin,Xue, Huijie,&Shu, Yeqiang.(2019).The Indonesian Throughflow and the Circulation in the Banda Sea: A Modeling Study.JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS,124(5),3089.
MLA Liang, Linlin,et al."The Indonesian Throughflow and the Circulation in the Banda Sea: A Modeling Study".JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 124.5(2019):3089.
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